Robert D. Creative Maverick of Public Choice. Gordon L. Brady , Robert D.
Economics, political science, social sciences, ecological, urban and regional studies all supply the data concerning which the analytical models allow prescriptions when necessary crises, problems, concerns, etc. In the case of social science and planning this is not a matter of a reality of nature which has its own inviolable laws.
In other words, this reality is a function of the decisions, within certain given constraints. When decisions have to be made concerning the future, would a community not do better by as individuals do incorporating the behaviour of groups and individuals into the decision process ex ante, while considering methods for simulation of this behaviour, rather than reproducing set parameters obtained from uncertain data collected ex post? Its aims will be pragmatic rather than heuristic: to measure the technical coherence and feasibility of the choices and of the preferred set of options.
Neither would there be social behaviour which, naturally belonging to social analysis, needed to be confronted with the theorems of homo economicus. Nor would the logic of group action have sense any longer, as an irrefutable factor obstructing any intention for the reform of social behaviour. In fact, the distinction between the economic, social, or political nature of things fades with the formulation of preferences, based on a well-arranged system of objectives.
Similarly, the issue of coherence and consistency of said objectives remains, as does the question of coherence and consistency in the use of the instruments. In other words, the analysis is geared toward the programme, and the only variables and relationships between these analysed are the ones relevant to the programme. During the planning process there is no distinction between the social and economic objectives which must be made compatible. Such bases consist of the consolidation of procedures of analysis, of evaluation and of decision.
Notwithstanding certain schematisms introduced by operational planning, which is above all aimed at the management of micro-units and micro-projects, these schematisms have not yet been elaborated, discussed, or consolidated enough on a complex community scale. It obtains greater consensus thanks to its banality and to the fact that it involves a less complex and intellectually more manageable vision. Until now, we have worked in the utmost disorder.
Qualitative planning has also been paralyzed by a lack of trust in gaining collective preference with suitable organisational tools and with suitable institutional procedures. I do not see such ability in planners today. Neither do I see it in our universities or in its graduates to carry out their role in the various administrative bodies.
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In this situation, is there even anything to fail? What failure, then, can we talk about? Until we are able to do this, we do not have the right to talk of failure.
It seems to me that the literature on planning has not produced enough in this direction: neither in the shape of proposals nor as a result of experience. We all know that when we have had to confront the preparation of a plan we have had to invent, case by case, a new methodology ex novo, and that we have found little support in our libraries. It is in this instance that one should identify and construct the models and the accounting frames to be used for all the analyses of consistency between plan alternative evaluations and plan hypotheses.
In my opinion, for planning modelisation on a national scale the discussion should be taken up again from the point at which it was let, i. On the other levels, sub-national, i. Besides, they have also come to a halt because of the poor quality of the data available. By following his scheme, it is very possible to construct a standard planning process also for the other relevant levels. His views have remained quite relevant, since from that time an appropriate planning methodology has not made progress.
In other words, the exogenous constraints with which a plan must reckon. Fox has elaborated a very interesting system of social accounting that could be a good bridge for the integration between socio-environmental and economic accounting. I believe that since then it cannot be said that the situation has improved, but rather that it has gotten worse.
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Such assumptions should be present either as data, or as estimates, or as simple hypotheses; they should be present, however, and also be the object of the controls and the negotiations with the appropriate participants just like all the other contents of the plan. Marketing analyses are excellent tools for the evaluation ex post statistical and ex ante polling of behaviour. But the opinions and preferences of various interested groups can be collected and measured permanently with modern systems of control that no-one applies it is strange that we can have TV audiences constantly monitored and yet not equip planners with a similar monitoring system for patterns of behaviour and preferences which are much more important for the political operators, and which represent decisive factors when in the hands of planners for the well-being of the community.
But, on what can we base this monitoring if we have not beforehand constructed and organised the indicators the plans need about which see Sect. In reality, information technology has not yet given all its potential and powerful support to the collecting and processing of data useful for planning, in spite of many favourable circumstances. In the last couple of decades there has taken place a well-known blossoming of studies and applications in all directions.
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From an historic viewpoint according to the fashion of the times , they have appeared as a more concrete and more realistic alternative to the unsuccessful planning experience. A great challenge for the development of the new discipline of planning is, therefore, that of the development of the studies and methodologies of evaluation also in the ambit of macro-planning, i.
In this direction, there is a great deal of work to do. But, since the conventional denomination of that accounting has become economic or national, we prefer to reserve the expression social accounting for the new attempts to create an integrated accounting system outside the national accounting system, capable of reaching the non-economic or as I would prefer, the non-monetary phenomena of welfare.
By this, I mean that they are not measurable with the help of actual or simulated prices of the market, but rather through other indicators of output or of utility. I believe that the best way to move towards the improved performance of planning as a new discipline planning science or planology is to give a systematic outline of its foundations.
However, they need to be rearranged subject to the heuristic logic of planning theory as outlined above in Sect.
Within the new discipline, the matter is also beyond the continuation of this fervour of studies toward increasingly better approaches better-aimed research. My conclusion is that only ater realising that the theory of planning must march in these multiple directions, can we say that the theory of planning exists and is useful. In other words, they are explicitly aimed at the preparation and implementation of plans. Above all, this poses the problem of the decision-making, and thus of the plan, at the base of each form of analysis of the kind evoked here, including integrated forms.
It is not the task of this book to illustrate motivations and theoretical foundations of the planological approach. With this intention, we would not go too much on the methodological approach. In most countries the shit of viewpoint is, however, based on a kind of half-logic which I have never been able to understand and which, I think, will never be able to yield fundamental solutions. On the one hand, one still retains the onlooker viewpoint, and tries to make projections on this basis growth models of the current types , and on the other hand, one will aterwards try to use such projections as a basis for decisions.
It must be based on a decision model, i. In the next chapter, I will indicate the basic postulates that, according to me, should preside over their development, and I will outline a logical frame log-frame within which these studies could achieve their systemic connection. In Chap. In addition, I synthetically tried to indicate in the further chapters of this book Chaps.
In this chapter, therefore, I will try to build a framework, through which it may be possible to establish stable links between the procedural and epistemological planning with the various substantive aspects of planning, and to get a unitary methodological scheme. Further, that scheme will be the subject of this chapter.
Nonetheless, action-oriented or decision-oriented analysis introduces a new say, epistemological element into consideration: the observation-oriented or positive analysis is itself impacted even conditioned by the action-oriented normative analysis. Whilst in other traditional social sciences political science, economics, etc.
Such focus on past events, moreover, results in diminished capacity for the examination of more relevant and prevalent existing data, i. Postulate No. If the analysis is ex-ante action-oriented, and not oriented toward the analysis of things observed more or less ex-post, then any constraints on the decisional objectives disappear. Outcome may concern the temporis acti analysis, but certainly not the temporis agendi analysis.
It may interest the onlooker or, say, the historian of human behaviour, but not someone who must prepare a plan or help suggest planning decisions. But, sometimes, even teachers forget and neglect stupidity! We may admit, in practice, that the decision-maker may be unconsciously unconscious of her or his preferences; but whether he or she could be consciously unconscious is a question which concerns psychiatry even more than psychology!
According to the logic of Postulate No. To Postulate No. We urge that America become a planning society. Much governmental interference in the economy now consists of ad hoc reactions to situations which have been rendered acute because they were ignored until they became intolerable. Americans can resolve that any process we create will be compatible with freedom, and will preserve, to the greatest extent possible, the widely dispersed initiative and creativity we value so highly.
As the number of political institutions, at all levels, responsible for planning activity increases, so increases the number of institutions involved in the planning process. In sum, the postulates and especially their corollaries which have particular resonance for the planning theorist should be considered as such and accepted as the basis of planning theory. In this work, I will sketch a summary and essential model of this realm, proposing to leave for future works the piece-by-piece description of its features descriptions at which I will hopefully arrive in cooperation with my colleagues.
Indeed, its working system is applied at every stage or level of planning since there is almost always a superior and inferior level at any stage which can sensibly reshape the process as a whole. It is not by chance that Faludi himself, as many others before and ater him e. Unfortunately, this side of the theory, as asserted repeatedly above, has been too oten neglected by planning theorists, to the detriment of the implementability and feasibility of the plans. As a result, a systematic and organic co-ordination of the planning process of an individual plan with the planning process of other plans in the operational environment constitutes an essential factor and condition in the success or failure of any kind of planning.
In fact, I consider this distinction so essential that I suggest two parallel schemes for modelling the planning systems: one for each function and stage. In other words, it is a system that concerns the entire social life and includes all the possible decision-makers that act within it. It is a holistic system. Nonetheless, the dimensions, extension, and nomenclature i. In addition, the system will be split according to temporal dynamics. Needless to say, it would be possible to merge the two systems according to the process and the temporal dynamics into a single multi-dimensional model expressed mathematically by a hypermatrix.
In the selection stage, we decide what we must do, and at what the plan is aimed. Basic needs Health Public safety and protection Housing and physical environment Social integration and social defence Learning and education Recreation and cultural needs Accessibility Political participation, and so on.
Policy for basic needs assistance Incomes policies Policy of services Health policy Employment policies Transport policies School policies, and so on. Such a list of territorial scales might include: a. Supranational community if existing d. All this is expressed in Fig. Territorial distribution a. Urban Community b.